Analytical toxicology deals with the detection, identification and measurement of drugs and other foreign compounds (xenobiotics) and their metabolites in biological samples. The role of analysts working in the field of diagnosis, laboratory management and analytical toxicology plays an important role in having enough clinical and forensic toxicology knowledge. Furthermore, the expert should be able to communicate effectively with clinicians and judicial authorities during the interpretation phase of the analysis results.
In 1840, the Madame Lafarge case was the first time chemical tests were used to identify poison and poisoning from the forensic point of view. In the case of Madame Lafarge, who was prosecuted for killing her husband by poisoning him with arsenic, Orfila Mathieu, a chemistry teacher was granted an exhumation order and found arsenic traces in some of his organs during post mortem examinations.
For the past 25 years, many developments have occurred in terms of the reliability of analytical results in the detection, identification and measurement of drugs and other poisons in biological fluids. Some of these tests are applied for clinical purposes but require high analytical reliability as they may have medicolegal consequences. Nevertheless, plasma drug concentration measurements (TDM-therapeutic drug monitoring) to support treatment, addictive substance analysis in addiction treatment, occupational chemical exposure tests for occupational health and safety have increased.
Analytical Toxicology applications are mainly; Clinical Toxicology, Forensic Toxicology, Drugs of Abuse, TDM, Occupational and Environmental Toxicology.
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